Frederik Kratzert, Daniel Klotz, Sepp Hochreiter, and Grey Nearing
A deep learning rainfall-runoff model can take multiple meteorological forcing products as inputs and learn to combine them in spatially and temporally dynamic ways. This is demonstrated using Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs) trained over basins in the continental US using the CAMELS data set. Using multiple precipitation products (NLDAS, Maurer, DayMet) in a single LSTM significantly improved simulation accuracy relative to using only individual precipitation products. A sensitivity analysis showed that the LSTM learned to utilize different precipitation products in different ways in different basins and for simulating different parts of the hydrograph in individual basins.