Hamid Ebrahimy, Amin Naboureh, Bakhtiar Feizizadeh, Jagannath Aryal, and and Omid Ghorbanzadeh

The location of the landscapes used in the study.

The location of the landscapes used in the study.

The importance of Land Cover (LC) classification is recognized by an increasing number of scholars who employ LC information in various applications (i.e., address global climate change and achieve sustainable development). However, studying the roles of balancing data, image integration, and performance of different machine learning algorithms in various landscapes has not received as much attention from scientists. Therefore, the present study investigates the performance of three frequently used Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, including Extreme Learning Machines (ELM), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in LC mapping at six different landscapes. Moreover, the Geometric Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (G-SMOTE) was adopted to deal with the class imbalance problem. In this work, the time-series of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data were integrated to improve LC mapping accuracy, taking advantage of both data. Moreover, Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) was implemented to distinguish the most informative features. Based on the results, the RF integrated with G-SMOTE showed the best result for four landscapes (coastal, cropland, desert, and semi-arid). SVM integrated with G-SMOTE had the highest accuracy in the remaining two landscapes (plain and mountain). Applied ML algorithms showed good performances in various landscapes, ranging Overall Accuracy (OA) from 85% to 93% for RF, 83% to 94% for SVM, and 84% to 92% for ELM. The outcomes exhibit that although applying G-SMOTE may slightly decrease OA values, it generally boosts the results of LC classification accuracies in various landscapes, particularly for minority classes.

Applied Sciences, 11, 21, 10309, 2021-11-03.

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IARAI Authors
Omid Ghorbanzadeh
Research
Earth Observation
Keywords
Class Imbalance Problem, Image Classification, Land Cover, Machine Learning, Random Forest, Support Vector Machines

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