Omid Ghorbanzadeh, Hejar Shahabi, Alessandro Crivellari, Saeid Homayouni, Thomas Blaschke, and Pedram Ghamisi
Recent landslide detection studies have focused on pixel-based deep learning (DL) approaches. In contrast, intuitive annotation of landslides from satellite imagery is based on distinct features rather than individual pixels. This study examines the feasibility of the integration framework of a DL model with rule-based object-based image analysis (OBIA) to detect landslides. First, we designed a ResU-Net model and then trained and tested it in the Sentinel-2 imagery. Then we developed a simple rule-based OBIA with only four rulesets, applying it first to the original image dataset and then to the same dataset plus the resulting ResU-Net heatmap. The value of each pixel in the heatmap refers to the probability that the pixel belongs to either landslide or non-landslide classes. Thus, we evaluate three scenarios: ResU-Net, OBIA, and ResU-Net-OBIA. The landslide detection maps from three different classification scenarios were compared against a manual landslide inventory map using thematic accuracy assessment metrics: precision, recall, and f1-score. Our experiments in the testing area showed that the proposed integration framework yields f1-score values 8 and 22 percentage points higher than those of the ResU-Net and OBIA approaches, respectively.